epicyclic gearbox

Within an epicyclic or planetary gear train, several spur gears distributed evenly around the circumference run between a gear with internal teeth and a gear with external teeth on a concentric orbit. The circulation of the spur equipment takes place in analogy to the orbiting of the planets in the solar program. This is one way planetary gears acquired their name.
The pieces of a planetary gear train can be split into four main constituents.
The housing with integrated internal teeth is actually a ring gear. In the majority of cases the housing is fixed. The generating sun pinion is in the center of the ring gear, and is coaxially arranged with regards to the output. Sunlight pinion is usually mounted on a clamping system to be able to provide the mechanical link with the engine shaft. During procedure, the planetary gears, which will be installed on a planetary carrier, roll between your sunshine pinion and the band gear. The planetary carrier as well represents the result shaft of the gearbox.
The sole reason for the planetary gears is to transfer the mandatory torque. The number of teeth does not have any effect on the transmitting ratio of the gearbox. The number of planets may also vary. As the quantity of planetary gears raises, the distribution of the load increases and then the torque that can be transmitted. Raising the amount of tooth engagements also reduces the rolling electrical power. Since only area of the total output needs to be transmitted as rolling vitality, a planetary gear is incredibly efficient. The advantage of a planetary equipment compared to a single spur gear is based on this load distribution. It is therefore possible to transmit huge torques wit
h high efficiency with a compact design using planetary gears.
Provided that the ring gear has a continuous size, different ratios could be realized by various the number of teeth of the sun gear and the number of tooth of the planetary gears. Small the sun equipment, the greater the ratio. Technically, a meaningful ratio range for a planetary stage is approx. 3:1 to 10:1, since the planetary gears and sunlight gear are extremely tiny above and below these ratios. Larger ratios can be obtained by connecting several planetary stages in series in the same ring gear. In this case, we talk about multi-stage gearboxes.
With planetary gearboxes the speeds and torques could be overlaid by having a ring gear that is not set but is driven in virtually any direction of rotation. It is also possible to fix the drive shaft in order to grab the torque via the ring equipment. Planetary gearboxes have grown to be extremely important in lots of areas of mechanical engineering.
They have grown to be particularly well established in areas where high output levels and fast speeds must be transmitted with favorable mass inertia ratio adaptation. Huge transmission ratios can also easily be achieved with planetary gearboxes. Because of their positive properties and compact design and style, the gearboxes have various potential uses in commercial applications.
The benefits of planetary gearboxes:
Coaxial arrangement of input shaft and output shaft
Load distribution to many planetary gears
High efficiency due to low rolling power
Practically unlimited transmission ratio options due to combo of several planet stages
Suitable as planetary switching gear due to fixing this or that part of the gearbox
Possibility of use as overriding gearbox
Favorable volume output
Suitability for a broad range of applications
Epicyclic gearbox is an automatic type gearbox in which parallel shafts and gears set up from manual gear package are replaced with an increase of compact and more reputable sun and planetary kind of gears arrangement plus the manual clutch from manual electrical power train is replaced with hydro coupled clutch or torque convertor which made the tranny automatic.
The thought of epicyclic gear box is taken from the solar system which is known as to the perfect arrangement of objects.
The epicyclic gearbox usually includes the P N R D S (Parking, Neutral, Reverse, Drive, Sport) settings which is obtained by fixing of sun and planetary gears in line with the need of the drive.
The different parts of Epicyclic Gearbox
1. Ring gear- It is a type of gear which looks like a ring and have angular minimize teethes at its inner surface ,and is placed in outermost position in en epicyclic gearbox, the interior teethes of ring gear is in frequent mesh at outer point with the set of planetary gears ,it is also known as annular ring.
2. Sun gear- It’s the gear with angular trim teethes and is put in the middle of the epicyclic gearbox; the sun gear is in regular mesh at inner stage with the planetary gears and is usually connected with the suggestions shaft of the epicyclic equipment box.
One or more sunlight gears can be utilized for achieving different output.
3. Planet gears- They are small gears used in between band and sun gear , the teethes of the planet gears are in constant mesh with the sun and the ring gear at both the inner and outer items respectively.
The axis of the planet gears are attached to the planet carrier which is carrying the output shaft of the epicyclic gearbox.
The earth gears can rotate about their axis and in addition can revolve between the ring and the sun gear exactly like our solar system.
4. Planet carrier- It is a carrier fastened with the axis of the planet gears and is responsible for final tranny of the productivity to the productivity shaft.
The planet gears rotate over the carrier and the revolution of the planetary gears causes rotation of the carrier.
5. Brake or clutch band- The device used to fix the annular gear, sunshine gear and planetary gear and is managed by the brake or clutch of the automobile.
Working of Epicyclic Gearbox
The working principle of the epicyclic gearbox is based on the fact the fixing the gears i.e. sun equipment, planetary gears and annular equipment is done to get the essential torque or rate output. As fixing any of the above causes the variation in gear ratios from large torque to high velocity. So let’s observe how these ratios are obtained
First gear ratio
This provide high torque ratios to the automobile which helps the automobile to go from its initial state and is obtained by fixing the annular gear which in turn causes the planet carrier to rotate with the power supplied to sunlight gear.
Second gear ratio
This gives high speed ratios to the automobile which helps the automobile to realize higher speed throughout a travel, these ratios are obtained by fixing the sun gear which in turn makes the earth carrier the powered member and annular the traveling member as a way to achieve high speed ratios.
Reverse gear ratio
This gear reverses the direction of the output shaft which in turn reverses the direction of the vehicle, this gear is attained by fixing the planet gear carrier which makes the annular gear the powered member and the sun gear the driver member.
Note- More quickness or torque ratios can be achieved by increasing the quantity planet and sun equipment in epicyclic gear field.
High-speed epicyclic gears could be built relatively small as the energy is distributed over a number of meshes. This results in a low capacity to weight ratio and, as well as lower pitch brand velocity, leads to improved efficiency. The tiny gear diameters produce lower occasions of inertia, significantly minimizing acceleration and deceleration torque when starting and braking.
The coaxial design permits smaller and therefore more cost-effective foundations, enabling building costs to be kept low or entire generator sets to be integrated in containers.
Why epicyclic gearing is used have been covered in this magazine, so we’ll expand on the topic in just a few places. Let’s get started by examining a crucial facet of any project: expense. Epicyclic gearing is generally less costly, when tooled properly. Being an wouldn’t normally consider making a 100-piece lot of gears on an N/C milling equipment with an application cutter or ball end mill, you need to certainly not consider making a 100-piece lot of epicyclic carriers on an N/C mill. To hold carriers within sensible manufacturing costs they must be created from castings and tooled on single-purpose machines with multiple cutters at the same time removing material.
Size is another point. Epicyclic gear units are used because they’re smaller than offset equipment sets since the load is shared among the planed gears. This makes them lighter and smaller sized, versus countershaft gearboxes. Also, when configured correctly, epicyclic gear models are more efficient. The following example illustrates these benefits. Let’s presume that we’re designing a high-speed gearbox to fulfill the following requirements:
• A turbine gives 6,000 horsepower at 16,000 RPM to the source shaft.
• The result from the gearbox must travel a generator at 900 RPM.
• The design life is usually to be 10,000 hours.
With these requirements in mind, let’s look at three practical solutions, one involving a single branch, two-stage helical gear set. A second solution takes the original gear established and splits the two-stage reduction into two branches, and the 3rd calls for by using a two-stage planetary or star epicyclic. In this instance, we chose the celebrity. Let’s examine each one of these in greater detail, seeking at their ratios and resulting weights.
The first solution-a single branch, two-stage helical gear set-has two identical ratios, derived from taking the square root of the final ratio (7.70). In the process of reviewing this answer we recognize its size and pounds is very large. To lessen the weight we then explore the possibility of making two branches of a similar arrangement, as seen in the second solutions. This cuts tooth loading and minimizes both size and fat considerably . We finally arrive at our third remedy, which may be the two-stage superstar epicyclic. With three planets this gear train reduces tooth loading significantly from the primary approach, and a somewhat smaller amount from choice two (find “methodology” at end, and Figure 6).
The unique style characteristics of epicyclic gears are a large part of why is them so useful, however these very characteristics can make building them a challenge. In the next sections we’ll explore relative speeds, torque splits, and meshing considerations. Our objective is to make it easy that you can understand and use epicyclic gearing’s unique design characteristics.
Relative Speeds
Let’s commence by looking by how relative speeds function together with different arrangements. In the star set up the carrier is fixed, and the relative speeds of the sun, planet, and ring are simply determined by the speed of 1 member and the number of teeth in each gear.
In a planetary arrangement the band gear is fixed, and planets orbit sunlight while rotating on earth shaft. In this set up the relative speeds of sunlight and planets are determined by the number of teeth in each equipment and the acceleration of the carrier.
Things get somewhat trickier when working with coupled epicyclic gears, since relative speeds might not exactly be intuitive. It is therefore imperative to generally calculate the rate of sunlight, planet, and ring in accordance with the carrier. Remember that possibly in a solar arrangement where the sunlight is fixed it has a speed romantic relationship with the planet-it is not zero RPM at the mesh.
Torque Splits
When considering torque splits one assumes the torque to be divided among the planets equally, but this may not be considered a valid assumption. Member support and the number of planets determine the torque split represented by an “effective” amount of planets. This number in epicyclic sets constructed with two or three planets is in most cases equal to some of the number of planets. When a lot more than three planets are applied, however, the effective quantity of planets is usually less than some of the number of planets.
Let’s look in torque splits regarding set support and floating support of the participants. With fixed support, all people are supported in bearings. The centers of sunlight, ring, and carrier will never be coincident due to manufacturing tolerances. Due to this fewer planets are simultaneously in mesh, resulting in a lower effective number of planets sharing the strain. With floating support, one or two people are allowed a small amount of radial flexibility or float, that allows the sun, ring, and carrier to seek a posture where their centers are coincident. This float could possibly be as little as .001-.002 inches. With floating support three planets will be in mesh, producing a higher effective amount of planets sharing the load.
Multiple Mesh Considerations
At this time let’s explore the multiple mesh considerations that needs to be made when designing epicyclic gears. Initial we should translate RPM into mesh velocities and determine the number of load application cycles per product of time for every member. The first step in this determination is certainly to calculate the speeds of every of the members in accordance with the carrier. For example, if the sun gear is rotating at +1700 RPM and the carrier is definitely rotating at +400 RPM the speed of the sun gear relative to the carrier is +1300 RPM, and the speeds of world and ring gears could be calculated by that swiftness and the amounts of teeth in each of the gears. The utilization of signs to signify clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation can be important here. If sunlight is rotating at +1700 RPM (clockwise) and the carrier is rotating -400 RPM (counter-clockwise), the relative quickness between the two associates can be +1700-(-400), or +2100 RPM.
The next step is to determine the amount of load application cycles. Because the sun and ring gears mesh with multiple planets, the number of load cycles per revolution in accordance with the carrier will be equal to the number of planets. The planets, on the other hand, will experience only one bi-directional load app per relative revolution. It meshes with the sun and ring, but the load is normally on reverse sides of one’s teeth, leading to one fully reversed pressure cycle. Thus the earth is considered an idler, and the allowable anxiety must be reduced 30 percent from the value for a unidirectional load request.
As noted above, the torque on the epicyclic associates is divided among the planets. In examining the stress and life of the customers we must look at the resultant loading at each mesh. We locate the idea of torque per mesh to be somewhat confusing in epicyclic equipment analysis and prefer to look at the tangential load at each mesh. For example, in looking at the tangential load at the sun-world mesh, we have the torque on sunlight equipment and divide it by the effective quantity of planets and the working pitch radius. This tangential load, combined with peripheral speed, is utilized to compute the energy transmitted at each mesh and, modified by the strain cycles per revolution, the life span expectancy of each component.
Furthermore to these issues there may also be assembly complications that require addressing. For example, inserting one planet in a position between sun and band fixes the angular job of the sun to the ring. Another planet(s) is now able to be assembled only in discreet locations where the sun and band can be concurrently involved. The “least mesh angle” from the first planet that will accommodate simultaneous mesh of the next planet is equal to 360° divided by the sum of the numbers of teeth in sunlight and the ring. Therefore, so that you can assemble extra planets, they must always be spaced at multiples of this least mesh position. If one wishes to have equivalent spacing of the planets in a simple epicyclic set, planets may be spaced equally when the sum of the number of teeth in the sun and band is normally divisible by the number of planets to an integer. The same rules apply in a compound epicyclic, but the fixed coupling of the planets offers another degree of complexity, and appropriate planet spacing may require match marking of teeth.
With multiple components in mesh, losses must be considered at each mesh as a way to measure the efficiency of the unit. Power transmitted at each mesh, not input power, must be used to compute power loss. For simple epicyclic sets, the total ability transmitted through the sun-world mesh and ring-planet mesh may be less than input vitality. This is among the reasons that simple planetary epicyclic sets are more efficient than other reducer plans. In contrast, for many coupled epicyclic pieces total electricity transmitted internally through each mesh could be greater than input power.
What of vitality at the mesh? For basic and compound epicyclic sets, calculate pitch brand velocities and tangential loads to compute electrical power at each mesh. Values can be obtained from the planet torque relative quickness, and the functioning pitch diameters with sunlight and band. Coupled epicyclic pieces present more complex issues. Components of two epicyclic units could be coupled 36 different ways using one insight, one output, and one reaction. Some plans split the power, while some recirculate electrical power internally. For these kind of epicyclic units, tangential loads at each mesh can only just be established through the application of free-body diagrams. On top of that, the elements of two epicyclic sets could be coupled nine various ways in a string, using one insight, one productivity, and two reactions. Let’s look at some examples.
In the “split-ability” coupled set demonstrated in Figure 7, 85 percent of the transmitted electricity flows to band gear #1 and 15 percent to ring gear #2. The effect is that this coupled gear set can be smaller sized than series coupled units because the electric power is split between the two elements. When coupling epicyclic sets in a string, 0 percent of the power will always be transmitted through each arranged.
Our next example depicts a established with “electrical power recirculation.” This equipment set comes about when torque gets locked in the machine in a way similar to what occurs in a “four-square” test procedure for vehicle travel axles. With the torque locked in the system, the horsepower at each mesh within the loop improves as speed increases. Therefore, this set will encounter much higher electric power losses at each mesh, resulting in drastically lower unit efficiency .
Physique 9 depicts a free-body diagram of a great epicyclic arrangement that experiences electric power recirculation. A cursory analysis of this free-physique diagram explains the 60 percent efficiency of the recirculating collection demonstrated in Figure 8. Since the planets are rigidly coupled jointly, the summation of forces on both gears must equal zero. The push at sunlight gear mesh results from the torque source to the sun gear. The pressure at the next ring gear mesh benefits from the productivity torque on the ring gear. The ratio being 41.1:1, result torque is 41.1 times input torque. Adjusting for a pitch radius big difference of, say, 3:1, the force on the second planet will be about 14 times the pressure on the first planet at sunlight gear mesh. As a result, for the summation of forces to mean zero, the tangential load at the first band gear should be approximately 13 situations the tangential load at the sun gear. If we assume the pitch range velocities to be the same at the sun mesh and ring mesh, the energy loss at the band mesh will be roughly 13 times greater than the power loss at the sun mesh .