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China manufacturer Wide Angle Pto Adaptor Cardan Spline Shaft Yoke Tube Torque Limiter Universal Joint Cross Cover Agricultural Machinery Tractor Parts Pto Drive Shaft

Product Description

 Wide Angle Pto Adaptor Cardan Spline Shaft Yoke Tube Torque Limiter Universal Joint cross Cover  Agricultural Machinery Tractor Parts Pto Drive Shaft 

Product Description

A PTO shaft (Power Take-Off shaft) is a mechanical component used to transfer power from a tractor or other power source to an attached implement such as a mower, tiller, or baler. The PTO shaft is typically located at the rear of the tractor and is powered by the tractor’s engine through the transmission.
The PTO shaft is designed to provide a rotating power source to the implement, allowing it to perform its intended function. The implement is connected to the PTO shaft using a universal joint, which allows for movement between the tractor and the implement while still maintaining a constant power transfer.

Here is our advantages when compare to similar products from China:
1.Forged yokes make PTO shafts strong enough for usage and working;
2.Internal sizes standard to confirm installation smooth;
3.CE and ISO certificates to guarantee to quality of our goods;
4.Strong and professional package to confirm the good situation when you receive the goods.

Product Specifications






Packaging & Shipping


Company Profile

HangZhou Hanon Technology Co.,ltd is a modern enterprise specilizing in the development,production,sales and services of Agricultural Parts like PTO shaft and Gearboxes and Hydraulic parts like  Cylinder , Valve ,Gearpump and motor etc..
We adhere to the principle of ” High Quality, Customers’Satisfaction”, using advanced technology and equipments to ensure all the technical standards of transmission .We follow the principle of people first , trying our best to set up a pleasant surroundings and platform of performance for each employee. So everyone can be self-consciously active to join Hanon Machinery.



1.What’re your main products?

we currently product Agricultural Parts like PTO shaft and Gearboxes and Hydraulic parts like Cylinder , Valve ,Gear pump and motor.You can check the specifications for above product on our website and you can email us to recommend needed product per your specification too.

2.What’s the lead time for a regular order?

Generally speaking, our regular standard product will need 30-45days, a bit longer for customized products. But we are very flexible on the lead time, it will depend on the specific orders.

3.What’s your warranty terms?

One year.

4.Can you send me a price list?

For all of our product, they are customized based on different requirements like length, ratio,voltage,and power etc. The price also varies according to annual quantity. So it’s really difficult for us to provide a price list. If you can share your detailed requirements and annual quantity, we’ll see what offer we can provide.

5.What’s the payment term? 

When we quote for you,we will confirm with you the way of transaction,FOB,CIFetc.<br> For mass production goods, you need to pay 30% deposit before producing and70% balance against copy of documents.The most common way is by T/T.  

6.How to deliver the goods to us?

Usually we will ship the goods to you by sea.

PTO Drive Shaft Parts



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Type: Agricultural Spare Part
Usage: Agricultural Products Processing, Farmland Infrastructure, Tillage, Harvester, Planting and Fertilization, Grain Threshing, Cleaning and Drying, Agricultural Machinery,Farm Tractor
Material: 45cr Steel
US$ 20/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)


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Return&refunds: You can apply for a refund up to 30 days after receipt of the products.

spline shaft

How does the design of a spline shaft affect its performance?

The design of a spline shaft plays a crucial role in determining its performance characteristics. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Torque Transmission:

The design of the spline shaft directly affects its ability to transmit torque efficiently. Factors such as the spline profile, number of splines, and engagement length influence the torque-carrying capacity of the shaft. A well-designed spline profile with optimized dimensions ensures maximum contact area and load distribution, resulting in improved torque transmission.

2. Load Distribution:

A properly designed spline shaft distributes the applied load evenly across the engagement surfaces. This helps to minimize stress concentrations and prevents localized wear or failure. The design should consider factors such as spline profile geometry, tooth form, and surface finish to achieve optimal load distribution and enhance the overall performance of the shaft.

3. Misalignment Compensation:

Spline shafts can accommodate a certain degree of misalignment between the mating components. The design of the spline profile can incorporate features that allow for angular or parallel misalignment, ensuring effective power transmission even under misaligned conditions. Proper design considerations help maintain smooth operation and prevent excessive stress or premature failure.

4. Torsional Stiffness:

The design of the spline shaft influences its torsional stiffness, which is the resistance to twisting under torque. A stiffer shaft design reduces torsional deflection, improves torque response, and enhances the system’s overall performance. The shaft material, diameter, and spline profile all contribute to achieving the desired torsional stiffness.

5. Fatigue Resistance:

The design of the spline shaft should consider fatigue resistance to ensure long-term durability. Fatigue failure can occur due to repeated or cyclic loading. Proper design practices, such as optimizing the spline profile, selecting appropriate materials, and incorporating suitable surface treatments, can enhance the fatigue resistance of the shaft and extend its service life.

6. Surface Finish and Lubrication:

The surface finish of the spline shaft and the lubrication used significantly impact its performance. A smooth surface finish reduces friction, wear, and the potential for corrosion. Proper lubrication ensures adequate film formation, reduces heat generation, and minimizes wear. The design should incorporate considerations for surface finish requirements and lubrication provisions to optimize the shaft’s performance.

7. Environmental Considerations:

The design should take into account the specific environmental conditions in which the spline shaft will operate. Factors such as temperature, humidity, exposure to chemicals, or abrasive particles can affect the shaft’s performance and longevity. Suitable material selection, surface treatments, and sealing mechanisms can be incorporated into the design to withstand the environmental challenges.

8. Manufacturing Feasibility:

The design of the spline shaft should also consider manufacturing feasibility and cost-effectiveness. Complex designs may be challenging to produce or require specialized manufacturing processes, resulting in increased production costs. Balancing design complexity with manufacturability is crucial to ensure a practical and efficient manufacturing process.

By considering these design factors, engineers can optimize the performance of spline shafts, resulting in enhanced torque transmission, improved load distribution, misalignment compensation, torsional stiffness, fatigue resistance, surface finish, and environmental compatibility. A well-designed spline shaft contributes to the overall efficiency, reliability, and longevity of the mechanical system in which it is used.

spline shaft

How do spline shafts contribute to precise and consistent rotation?

Spline shafts play a crucial role in achieving precise and consistent rotation in mechanical systems. Here’s how spline shafts contribute to these characteristics:

1. Interlocking Design:

Spline shafts feature a series of ridges or teeth, known as splines, that interlock with corresponding grooves or slots in mating components. This interlocking design ensures a positive connection between the shaft and the mating part, allowing for precise and consistent rotation. The engagement between the splines provides resistance to axial and radial movement, minimizing play or backlash that can introduce inaccuracies in rotation.

2. Load Distribution:

The interlocking engagement of spline shafts allows for effective load distribution along the length of the shaft. This helps distribute the applied torque evenly, reducing stress concentrations and minimizing the risk of localized deformation or failure. By distributing the load, spline shafts contribute to consistent rotation and prevent excessive wear on specific areas of the shaft or the mating components.

3. Torque Transmission:

Spline shafts are specifically designed to transmit torque efficiently from one component to another. The close fit between the splines ensures a high torque-carrying capacity, enabling the shaft to transfer rotational force without significant power loss. This efficient torque transmission contributes to precise and consistent rotation, allowing for accurate positioning and motion control in various applications.

4. Rigidity and Stiffness:

Spline shafts are typically constructed from materials with high rigidity and stiffness, such as steel or alloy. This inherent rigidity helps maintain the dimensional integrity of the shaft and minimizes deflection or bending under load. By providing a stable and stiff rotational axis, spline shafts contribute to precise and consistent rotation, particularly in applications that require tight tolerances or high-speed operation.

5. Alignment and Centering:

The interlocking nature of spline shafts aids in the alignment and centering of rotating components. The splines ensure proper positioning and orientation of the shaft relative to the mating part, facilitating concentric rotation. This alignment helps prevent wobbling, vibrations, and eccentricity, which can adversely affect rotation accuracy and consistency.

6. Lubrication and Wear Reduction:

Proper lubrication of spline shafts is essential for maintaining precise and consistent rotation. Lubricants reduce friction between the mating surfaces, minimizing wear and preventing stick-slip phenomena that can cause irregular rotation. The use of lubrication also helps dissipate heat generated during operation, ensuring optimal performance and longevity of the spline shaft.

By incorporating interlocking design, load distribution, efficient torque transmission, rigidity, alignment, and lubrication, spline shafts contribute to precise and consistent rotation in mechanical systems. Their reliable and accurate rotational characteristics make them suitable for a wide range of applications, from automotive and aerospace to machinery and robotics.

spline shaft

What are the advantages of using spline shafts in mechanical systems?

Using spline shafts in mechanical systems offers several advantages. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Torque Transmission:

Spline shafts provide efficient torque transmission between the driving and driven components. The interlocking splines ensure a secure and reliable transfer of rotational force, enabling the transmission of power and motion in mechanical systems.

2. Relative Movement Accommodation:

Spline shafts can accommodate relative movement between the driving and driven components. They allow axial, radial, and angular displacements, compensating for misalignments, thermal expansion, and vibrations. This flexibility helps to maintain proper engagement and minimize stress concentrations.

3. Load Distribution:

The splines on the shaft distribute the transmitted load across the entire engagement surface. This helps to reduce localized stresses and prevents premature wear or failure of the components. The load distribution capability of spline shafts contributes to the overall durability and longevity of the mechanical system.

4. Precise Positioning and Control:

Spline shafts enable precise positioning and control of mechanical components. The splines provide accurate rotational alignment, allowing for precise angular positioning and indexing. This is crucial in applications where precise control and synchronization of movements are required.

5. Interchangeability and Standardization:

Spline shafts are available in standardized designs and dimensions. This enables interchangeability between components and facilitates easier maintenance and replacement. Standardization also simplifies the design and manufacturing processes, reducing costs and lead times.

6. High Power Transmission Capacity:

Spline shafts are designed to withstand high torque loads. The interlocking splines provide a large contact area, distributing the transmitted torque across multiple teeth. This allows spline shafts to handle higher power transmission requirements, making them suitable for heavy-duty applications.

7. Versatility:

Spline shafts can be designed and manufactured to suit various application requirements. They can be customized in terms of size, shape, number of splines, and spline profile to match the specific needs of a mechanical system. This versatility makes spline shafts adaptable to a wide range of industries and applications.

8. Reduced Slippage and Backlash:

When properly designed and manufactured, spline shafts exhibit minimal slippage and backlash. The tight fit between the splines prevents significant axial or radial movement during torque transmission, resulting in improved efficiency and precision in mechanical systems.

In summary, the advantages of using spline shafts in mechanical systems include efficient torque transmission, accommodation of relative movement, load distribution, precise positioning and control, interchangeability, high power transmission capacity, versatility, and reduced slippage and backlash. These advantages make spline shafts a reliable and effective choice in various applications where power transfer, flexibility, and precise motion control are essential.

China manufacturer Wide Angle Pto Adaptor Cardan Spline Shaft Yoke Tube Torque Limiter Universal Joint Cross Cover Agricultural Machinery Tractor Parts Pto Drive Shaft  China manufacturer Wide Angle Pto Adaptor Cardan Spline Shaft Yoke Tube Torque Limiter Universal Joint Cross Cover Agricultural Machinery Tractor Parts Pto Drive Shaft
editor by CX 2024-05-14

China plastic shaft cover for tractor pto shaft with Hot selling

Situation: New
Warranty: 6 Months
Applicable Industries: Farms
Showroom Location: None
Video clip outgoing-inspection: Not Obtainable
Equipment Examination Report: Not Offered
Marketing Variety: New Item 2571
Sort: Shafts
Use: Tractors
Tube: Triangle /Lemon /Star /Involute Spline Tube
Yoke: Splined yoke / Plain Bore yoke / Tube yoke
Yoke Processing: Forging or Casting
Plastic Guard: a hundred thirty/one hundred sixty/180 sequence
Colour: yellow black and many others.
Soon after Warranty Service: Video specialized support, Online support
Neighborhood Service Location: None
Packaging Details: 1 established for each carton or your need
Port: ZheJiang

Shaft components

Technological info


Firm Information

FAQ1. Q: Are your merchandise forged or solid?
A: All of our merchandise are forged.
2. Q: Do you have a CE certificate?
A: Yes, we are CE qualified.
3. Q: What is the horse electrical power of the pto shaft are offered?
A: We offer a entire assortment of pto shaft, ranging from 16HP-2 ZZCB-twenty five-one hundred 7L8Z-4R602-B 6076 Travel Shaft Center Assist Bearing for CZPT Escape 2007-01 Mazda Tribute 2006-01 1 3/4″ Z20 1 3/8″ Z21 1 1/2″ Z8 1 1/8″ Z6 forty eight*42*8-Z8 60*fifty two*10-Z65*fifty six*10-Z8 High speed Stock bore duplex row conveyor Chain pitch sprocket 54*forty six*9-Z8splines.
five. Q: What is your payment terms?
A: T/T, L/C, D/A, D/P….
six. Q: What is the shipping time?
A: thirty times following getting your innovative deposit.
7. Q: What’ XLPM75A long term magnetic motor 55kw 75hp screw air compressor s your MOQ?
A: 50 sets for each and every type.

The Benefits of Spline Couplings for Disc Brake Mounting Interfaces

Spline couplings are commonly used for securing disc brake mounting interfaces. Spline couplings are often used in high-performance vehicles, aeronautics, and many other applications. However, the mechanical benefits of splines are not immediately obvious. Listed below are the benefits of spline couplings. We’ll discuss what these advantages mean for you. Read on to discover how these couplings work.

Disc brake mounting interfaces are splined

There are two common disc brake mounting interfaces – splined and six-bolt. Splined rotors fit on splined hubs; six-bolt rotors will need an adapter to fit on six-bolt hubs. The six-bolt method is easier to maintain and may be preferred by many cyclists. If you’re thinking of installing a disc brake system, it is important to know how to choose the right splined and center lock interfaces.

Aerospace applications

The splines used for spline coupling in aircraft are highly complex. While some previous researches have addressed the design of splines, few publications have tackled the problem of misaligned spline coupling. Nevertheless, the accurate results we obtained were obtained using dedicated simulation tools, which are not commercially available. Nevertheless, such tools can provide a useful reference for our approach. It would be beneficial if designers could use simple tools for evaluating contact pressure peaks. Our analytical approach makes it possible to find answers to such questions.
The design of a spline coupling for aerospace applications must be accurate to minimize weight and prevent failure mechanisms. In addition to weight reduction, it is necessary to minimize fretting fatigue. The pressure distribution on the spline coupling teeth is a significant factor in determining its fretting fatigue. Therefore, we use analytical and experimental methods to examine the contact pressure distribution in the axial direction of spline couplings.
The teeth of a spline coupling can be categorized by the type of engagement they provide. This study investigates the position of resultant contact forces in the teeth of a spline coupling when applied to pitch diameter. Using FEM models, numerical results are generated for nominal and parallel offset misalignments. The axial tooth profile determines the behavior of the coupling component and its ability to resist wear. Angular misalignment is also a concern, causing misalignment.
In order to assess wear damage of a spline coupling, we must take into consideration the impact of fretting on the components. This wear is caused by relative motion between the teeth that engage them. The misalignment may be caused by vibrations, cyclical tooth deflection, or angular misalignment. The result of this analysis may help designers improve their spline coupling designs and develop improved performance.
CZPT polyimide, an abrasion-resistant polymer, is a popular choice for high-temperature spline couplings. This material reduces friction and wear, provides a low friction surface, and has a low wear rate. Furthermore, it offers up to 50 times the life of metal on metal spline connections. For these reasons, it is important to choose the right material for your spline coupling.

High-performance vehicles

A spline coupler is a device used to connect splined shafts. A typical spline coupler resembles a short pipe with splines on either end. There are two basic types of spline coupling: single and dual spline. One type attaches to a drive shaft, while the other attaches to the gearbox. While spline couplings are typically used in racing, they’re also used for performance problems.
The key challenge in spline couplings is to determine the optimal dimension of spline joints. This is difficult because no commercial codes allow the simulation of misaligned joints, which can destroy components. This article presents analytical approaches to estimating contact pressures in spline connections. The results are comparable with numerical approaches but require special codes to accurately model the coupling operation. This research highlights several important issues and aims to make the application of spline couplings in high-performance vehicles easier.
The stiffness of spline assemblies can be calculated using tooth-like structures. Such splines can be incorporated into the spline joint to produce global stiffness for torsional vibration analysis. Bearing reactions are calculated for a certain level of misalignment. This information can be used to design bearing dimensions and correct misalignment. There are three types of spline couplings.
Major diameter fit splines are made with tightly controlled outside diameters. This close fit provides concentricity transfer from the male to the female spline. The teeth of the male spline usually have chamfered tips and clearance with fillet radii. These splines are often manufactured from billet steel or aluminum. These materials are renowned for their strength and uniform grain created by the forging process. ANSI and DIN design manuals define classes of fit.

Disc brake mounting interfaces

A spline coupling for disc brake mounting interfaces is a type of hub-to-brake-disc mount. It is a highly durable coupling mechanism that reduces heat transfer from the disc to the axle hub. The mounting arrangement also isolates the axle hub from direct contact with the disc. It is also designed to minimize the amount of vehicle downtime and maintenance required to maintain proper alignment.
Disc brakes typically have substantial metal-to-metal contact with axle hub splines. The discs are held in place on the hub by intermediate inserts. This metal-to-metal contact also aids in the transfer of brake heat from the brake disc to the axle hub. Spline coupling for disc brake mounting interfaces comprises a mounting ring that is either a threaded or non-threaded spline.
During drag brake experiments, perforated friction blocks filled with various additive materials are introduced. The materials included include Cu-based powder metallurgy material, a composite material, and a Mn-Cu damping alloy. The filling material affects the braking interface’s wear behavior and friction-induced vibration characteristics. Different filling materials produce different types of wear debris and have different wear evolutions. They also differ in their surface morphology.
Disc brake couplings are usually made of two different types. The plain and HD versions are interchangeable. The plain version is the simplest to install, while the HD version has multiple components. The two-piece couplings are often installed at the same time, but with different mounting interfaces. You should make sure to purchase the appropriate coupling for your vehicle. These interfaces are a vital component of your vehicle and must be installed correctly for proper operation.
Disc brakes use disc-to-hub elements that help locate the forces and displace them to the rim. These elements are typically made of stainless steel, which increases the cost of manufacturing the disc brake mounting interface. Despite their benefits, however, the high braking force loads they endure are hard on the materials. Moreover, excessive heat transferred to the intermediate elements can adversely affect the fatigue life and long-term strength of the brake system.

China plastic shaft cover for tractor pto shaft     with Hot selling		China plastic shaft cover for tractor pto shaft     with Hot selling
editor by czh 2023-02-20

China Agricultural Wide Angle Cardan Kubota Spline Cross Yoke Adapter Universal Joint Cover Rotavator Tractor Drive bush hog PTO Shaft with Best Sales

Situation: New
Warranty: 1.5 years
Relevant Industries: Manufacturing Plant, Equipment Restore Retailers, Foodstuff & Beverage Manufacturing unit, Farms, House Use, Design works , Power & Mining
Weight (KG): ten KG
Showroom Spot: Italy
Online video outgoing-inspection: Supplied
Equipment Take a look at Report: Provided
Marketing and advertising Sort: New Solution 2571
Sort: Shafts
Use: Tractors
certification: CE
Material: Steel
Shade: Yellow&Black
Processing of yoke: Forging
Processing of tube: Cold drawn
Style: Custom-made
Certificate: CE Certification
After Warranty Services: On the internet assist
Packaging Details: carton/iron crate
Port: HangZhou or ZheJiang

Products Description Rewards of our group 1. Specializing in production and offering the farm device far more than eleven many years.2. “CE certificate”3. With the rigid quality manage and greatest services for clients.4.We can provide exceptional and speedy right after-revenue support.5. Our purpose: earn-earn.6. We can layout and generate devices in accordance to customer’s requirements.

Function of PTO ShaftDrive Shaft Elements & Energy Transmission
Usage of PTO ShaftKinds of Tractors & Farm Implements
Yoke Kinds for PTO ShaftDouble drive pin, Bolt pins, NMRV090 gearbox with single-period motor 70rpm ratio20 Break up pins, Pushpin, Rapid release, Ball attachment, Collar…..
Processing Of YokeForging
PTO Shaft Plastic Go overYW BW YS BS And so on
Colors of PTO ShaftGreen Orange Yellow Black Ect.
PTO Shaft SeriesT1-T10 2571 Sizzling marketing quad 250cc 4×4 off road farm ATV All-terrain ATV 4×4 grown ups farm cars atv L1-L6S6-S1010HP-150HP with SA,RA,SB,SFF,WA,CV And so forth
Tube Varieties for PTO ShaftLemon, Triangular, Star, Sq., Hexangular, Spline, Titanium Engine Stud Button Sprocket Unf M5 M12 Hexagonal Socket M5 X 20Mm Titanium Bottle Cage Capped Bolt Titanium Motorbike Particular Ect
Processing Of TubeCold drawn
Spline Varieties for PTO Shaft1 1/8″ Z61 3/8″ Z6 1 3/8″ Z21 1 3/4″ Z20 1 3/4″ Z6 8-38*32*6 8-forty two*36*7 8-forty eight*forty two*8
If you need to have personalized styles, AtlasCopco screw air compressor Motor cylinder head washer for sale you should click here to speak to us! Application state of affairs Product packaging Relevant Goods Business Profile FAQ

How to Calculate Stiffness, Centering Force, Wear and Fatigue Failure of Spline Couplings

There are various types of spline couplings. These couplings have several important properties. These properties are: Stiffness, Involute splines, Misalignment, Wear and fatigue failure. To understand how these characteristics relate to spline couplings, read this article. It will give you the necessary knowledge to determine which type of coupling best suits your needs. Keeping in mind that spline couplings are usually spherical in shape, they are made of steel.

Involute splines

An effective side interference condition minimizes gear misalignment. When two splines are coupled with no spline misalignment, the maximum tensile root stress shifts to the left by five mm. A linear lead variation, which results from multiple connections along the length of the spline contact, increases the effective clearance or interference by a given percentage. This type of misalignment is undesirable for coupling high-speed equipment.
Involute splines are often used in gearboxes. These splines transmit high torque, and are better able to distribute load among multiple teeth throughout the coupling circumference. The involute profile and lead errors are related to the spacing between spline teeth and keyways. For coupling applications, industry practices use splines with 25 to fifty-percent of spline teeth engaged. This load distribution is more uniform than that of conventional single-key couplings.
To determine the optimal tooth engagement for an involved spline coupling, Xiangzhen Xue and colleagues used a computer model to simulate the stress applied to the splines. The results from this study showed that a “permissible” Ruiz parameter should be used in coupling. By predicting the amount of wear and tear on a crowned spline, the researchers could accurately predict how much damage the components will sustain during the coupling process.
There are several ways to determine the optimal pressure angle for an involute spline. Involute splines are commonly measured using a pressure angle of 30 degrees. Similar to gears, involute splines are typically tested through a measurement over pins. This involves inserting specific-sized wires between gear teeth and measuring the distance between them. This method can tell whether the gear has a proper tooth profile.
The spline system shown in Figure 1 illustrates a vibration model. This simulation allows the user to understand how involute splines are used in coupling. The vibration model shows four concentrated mass blocks that represent the prime mover, the internal spline, and the load. It is important to note that the meshing deformation function represents the forces acting on these three components.

Stiffness of coupling

The calculation of stiffness of a spline coupling involves the measurement of its tooth engagement. In the following, we analyze the stiffness of a spline coupling with various types of teeth using two different methods. Direct inversion and blockwise inversion both reduce CPU time for stiffness calculation. However, they require evaluation submatrices. Here, we discuss the differences between these two methods.
The analytical model for spline couplings is derived in the second section. In the third section, the calculation process is explained in detail. We then validate this model against the FE method. Finally, we discuss the influence of stiffness nonlinearity on the rotor dynamics. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We present a simple yet effective method for estimating the lateral stiffness of spline couplings.
The numerical calculation of the spline coupling is based on the semi-analytical spline load distribution model. This method involves refined contact grids and updating the compliance matrix at each iteration. Hence, it consumes significant computational time. Further, it is difficult to apply this method to the dynamic analysis of a rotor. This method has its own limitations and should be used only when the spline coupling is fully investigated.
The meshing force is the force generated by a misaligned spline coupling. It is related to the spline thickness and the transmitting torque of the rotor. The meshing force is also related to the dynamic vibration displacement. The result obtained from the meshing force analysis is given in Figures 7, 8, and 9.
The analysis presented in this paper aims to investigate the stiffness of spline couplings with a misaligned spline. Although the results of previous studies were accurate, some issues remained. For example, the misalignment of the spline may cause contact damages. The aim of this article is to investigate the problems associated with misaligned spline couplings and propose an analytical approach for estimating the contact pressure in a spline connection. We also compare our results to those obtained by pure numerical approaches.


To determine the centering force, the effective pressure angle must be known. Using the effective pressure angle, the centering force is calculated based on the maximum axial and radial loads and updated Dudley misalignment factors. The centering force is the maximum axial force that can be transmitted by friction. Several published misalignment factors are also included in the calculation. A new method is presented in this paper that considers the cam effect in the normal force.
In this new method, the stiffness along the spline joint can be integrated to obtain a global stiffness that is applicable to torsional vibration analysis. The stiffness of bearings can also be calculated at given levels of misalignment, allowing for accurate estimation of bearing dimensions. It is advisable to check the stiffness of bearings at all times to ensure that they are properly sized and aligned.
A misalignment in a spline coupling can result in wear or even failure. This is caused by an incorrectly aligned pitch profile. This problem is often overlooked, as the teeth are in contact throughout the involute profile. This causes the load to not be evenly distributed along the contact line. Consequently, it is important to consider the effect of misalignment on the contact force on the teeth of the spline coupling.
The centre of the male spline in Figure 2 is superposed on the female spline. The alignment meshing distances are also identical. Hence, the meshing force curves will change according to the dynamic vibration displacement. It is necessary to know the parameters of a spline coupling before implementing it. In this paper, the model for misalignment is presented for spline couplings and the related parameters.
Using a self-made spline coupling test rig, the effects of misalignment on a spline coupling are studied. In contrast to the typical spline coupling, misalignment in a spline coupling causes fretting wear at a specific position on the tooth surface. This is a leading cause of failure in these types of couplings.

Wear and fatigue failure

The failure of a spline coupling due to wear and fatigue is determined by the first occurrence of tooth wear and shaft misalignment. Standard design methods do not account for wear damage and assess the fatigue life with big approximations. Experimental investigations have been conducted to assess wear and fatigue damage in spline couplings. The tests were conducted on a dedicated test rig and special device connected to a standard fatigue machine. The working parameters such as torque, misalignment angle, and axial distance have been varied in order to measure fatigue damage. Over dimensioning has also been assessed.
During fatigue and wear, mechanical sliding takes place between the external and internal splines and results in catastrophic failure. The lack of literature on the wear and fatigue of spline couplings in aero-engines may be due to the lack of data on the coupling’s application. Wear and fatigue failure in splines depends on a number of factors, including the material pair, geometry, and lubrication conditions.
The analysis of spline couplings shows that over-dimensioning is common and leads to different damages in the system. Some of the major damages are wear, fretting, corrosion, and teeth fatigue. Noise problems have also been observed in industrial settings. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contact behavior of spline couplings, and numerical simulations are often hampered by the use of specific codes and the boundary element method.
The failure of a spline gear coupling was caused by fatigue, and the fracture initiated at the bottom corner radius of the keyway. The keyway and splines had been overloaded beyond their yield strength, and significant yielding was observed in the spline gear teeth. A fracture ring of non-standard alloy steel exhibited a sharp corner radius, which was a significant stress raiser.
Several components were studied to determine their life span. These components include the spline shaft, the sealing bolt, and the graphite ring. Each of these components has its own set of design parameters. However, there are similarities in the distributions of these components. Wear and fatigue failure of spline couplings can be attributed to a combination of the three factors. A failure mode is often defined as a non-linear distribution of stresses and strains.

China Agricultural Wide Angle Cardan Kubota Spline Cross Yoke Adapter Universal Joint Cover Rotavator Tractor Drive bush hog PTO Shaft     with Best Sales China Agricultural Wide Angle Cardan Kubota Spline Cross Yoke Adapter Universal Joint Cover Rotavator Tractor Drive bush hog PTO Shaft     with Best Sales
editor by czh 2023-02-15