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China Good quality Custom Carbon Steel Big Gear Shaft Large Spline Shaft

Product Description

Product Description

structural carbon steel :45# with details in under sheet :

Standard No. Alloy No. Chemical compositions(%)
C Cr Mn Ni P Si
GB/T699-1999 45# 0.42~0.50 ≤0.25 0.50~0.80 ≤0.25 ≤0.035 ≤0.035 0.17~0.37
Tensile Strength(Mpa) Yeild Strength(Mpa) Elongation(%) Contraction of area Z(%)
≥600 ≥355 ≥16 ≥40

The correlation between properties and parameters-S45C (JIS)-SAE1045(Aisi)-SM45 of No. 45 steel(45 steel) was studied:
No. 45 steel is a carbon structural steel with 0.45% carboncontent. It is characterized by low price, good cutting performance, high hardness after quenching, good strength, toughness and wear resistance after quenching and temperingtreatment, is widely used in manufacturing structural partsand low-grade plastic mold. “45 steel” is a popular name, thesymbol is generally recorded as”45 #”. In fact GB standardsteel number is”45″, it is not a sequential number, read as”45steel” is not very accurate. Ingredient code 45 steels of similar designation are S45C (JIS) and 1045(Aisi) . In addition, ourcountry metallurgical technology standard has SM45 brandnumber to express the plastic mold use specially. Comparedwith 45 steel, SM45 has lower phosphorus and sulfur contentand better steel purity.

Standards YB/T 094 AISI JIS G4051
Alloy No. SM45 1045 S45C
C 0.42-0.48 0.43-0.50 0.42-0.48
Si 0.17-0.37   0.15-0.35
Mn 0.50-0.80 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90
P <0.030 <0.030 <0.030
S <0.035 <0.035 <0.035

Recommended process specification for heat treatment andhardness: quenching temperature 820 – 860″ C, water-oroil-cooled, hardness 250 HRC. Recommended tempering pro-cess specifcation: tempering temperature is 500 – 560″ C, aircooling, hardness is 25 – 33HRC. Tempering in this temperature range is the tempering treatment, Quenching and tempering make the strength, plasticity and toughness of 45 steelget a good balance, the comprehensive performance is good,can adapt to the alternating load environment. After quench-ing and tempering, the surface hardness of 45 steel is low anddoes not wear well. So commonly used quenching and tempering + surface quenching to improve the surface hardnessof parts.

Tempering temperature After quenching Unit centigrade
200 300 400 500 550 600
57 55 50 41 33 26 22


Mechanical properties (GB/T 699-1999)
Sample size mm 25
Heat treatments recommended Normalizing ºC 850
Quenching ºC 840
Tempering ºC 600
Mechanical properties Tensile strongth Mpa ≥600
Strong yield Mpa ≥355
Elongation Mpa ≥16
Section shrinkago Mpa ≥40
Impact Mpa ≥39
Hardness of delivery   HB ≤229
  HB ≤197


Main Products




Company Profile

ZheJiang Xihu (West Lake) Dis. Equipment Manufacturing Co, Ltd., located in HangZhou City, ZheJiang Province, is a steel forging manufacturing enterprise specializing in the production of forged round steel, square steel, shaft forgings, ring forgings, cylinder forgings, and forging processing, heat treatment, mechanical processing, and finished parts processing. 0.75 tons to 30 tons of ingot steel can also be supplied. The company has a strong special steel supply channel as support, especially in the special steel forgings more resource advantages, products include “chromium-nick- el-molybdenum steel, bonded steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, spring steel, bearing steel, rolls and other series.”Our company can also ensure flaw detection at all levels according to customer requirements and provide quality certification documents.

Forging Equipment
The main equipment is 2000 tons of hydraulic press, ring rolling machine, 3 tons of forging hammer, 2 tons of forging hammer, 1 ton forging hammer, 750KG forging hammer, 30T heat treatment and temper- ing furnace, lathe, sawing machine and other more than 30 sets of equipment, which can produce

forgings weighing 20Kg-20000Kg. Products are not only widely used in domestic large locomotives, coal machines, petroleum machinery, shipbuilding and other industries, but also exported to Europe, South- east Asia, and other countries and regions, forging products using advanced production technology

“high-power electric CHINAMFG (EF)furnace external refining (LF) vacuum degassing (VD) fast forging annealing (or normalizing) turning, Ensure chemical composition and mechanical property require-ments.




  • What is the difference between forging and casting?

    Forging: It is the process of transforming a CHINAMFG from 1 shape to another. Casting: It is the process of transforming a shapeless liquid metal into a CHINAMFG with a shape. The so-called casting is the process of casting molten metal into a model to obtain a casting. The casting profession focuses on the metal melting process and the control of processes during the casting process. Forging is a plastic forming process in the CHINAMFG state, which can be divided into hot processing and cold processing. Forgings include extrusion, drawing, roughening, punching, and so on. Casting is a CHINAMFG liquid CHINAMFG process, while forging is a CHINAMFG to CHINAMFG process where a CHINAMFG can change its shape into another shape at high temperatures. There are still differences in the shape process and process of the two.

  • How to choose high-quality forgings?

    In the quality inspection of forgings, there are mainly external observation methods and internal inspection methods. The appearance method, as the name suggests, is to observe the appearance of the product, such as the shape, geometric dimensions, surface condition, etc. of the forging, in order to understand whether it meets the standards and whether there are external defects. Specifically, it is to check whether the external dimensions of the forging meet the specifications and whether there are defects on the surface, such as cracks, wrinkles, bubbles, indentations, pits, impurities, scratches, etc. on the surface of the forging. Internal testing mainly involves analyzing the chemical composition, macroscopic and microscopic structures, and mechanical properties of forgings. This inspection process requires the use of specialized instruments for high magnification inspection, with the aim of checking for any phenomena such as fractures and shrinkage within the forging, as well as defects such as dendrites and white spots, disordered flow lines, and throughflow. It also includes the tensile strength, ductility, hardness, plasticity, and heat resistance temperature of the forging.

  • What are the characteristics of the forging process for blank forgings?

    The forging process of circular forgings mainly consists of the following processes: pier roughening, elongation, punching, and expanding. The difference between free forging and ring rolling processes is mainly in the process of expanding holes. In the production of ring forgings, free forging is usually used to expand the hole with a horse screw, while ring rolling is mainly used to expand the hole with rolling.

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Processing Object: Metal
Molding Style: Forging
Molding Technics: Hot Forging
Application: Machinery Parts
Material: Steel
Heat Treatment: Tempering
US$ 1100/Ton
1 Ton(Min.Order)

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Customized Request

spline shaft

How do spline shafts handle variations in torque and rotational force?

Spline shafts are designed to handle variations in torque and rotational force in mechanical systems. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Interlocking Splines:

Spline shafts have a series of interlocking splines along their length. These splines engage with corresponding splines on the mating component, such as gears or couplings. The interlocking design ensures a secure and robust connection, capable of transmitting torque and rotational force.

2. Load Distribution:

When torque is applied to a spline shaft, the load is distributed across the entire engagement surface of the splines. This helps to minimize stress concentrations and prevents localized wear or failure. The load distribution capability of spline shafts allows them to handle variations in torque and rotational force effectively.

3. Material Selection:

Spline shafts are typically made from materials with high strength and durability, such as alloy steels. The material selection is crucial in handling variations in torque and rotational force. It ensures that the spline shaft can withstand the applied loads without deformation or failure.

4. Spline Profile:

The design of the spline profile also contributes to the handling of torque variations. The spline profile determines the contact area and the distribution of forces along the splines. By optimizing the spline profile, manufacturers can enhance the load-carrying capacity and improve the ability of the spline shaft to handle variations in torque.

5. Surface Finish and Lubrication:

Proper surface finish and lubrication play a crucial role in the performance of spline shafts. A smooth surface finish reduces friction and wear, while suitable lubrication minimizes heat generation and ensures smooth operation. These factors help in handling variations in torque and rotational force by reducing the impact of friction and wear on the spline engagement.

6. Design Considerations:

Engineers take several design considerations into account to ensure spline shafts can handle variations in torque and rotational force. These considerations include appropriate spline dimensions, tooth profile geometry, spline fit tolerance, and the selection of mating components. By carefully designing the spline shaft and its mating components, engineers can optimize the system’s performance and reliability.

7. Overload Protection:

In some applications, spline shafts may be equipped with overload protection mechanisms. These mechanisms, such as shear pins or torque limiters, are designed to disconnect the drive temporarily or slip when the torque exceeds a certain threshold. This protects the spline shaft and other components from damage due to excessive torque.

Overall, spline shafts handle variations in torque and rotational force through their interlocking splines, load distribution capability, appropriate material selection, optimized spline profiles, surface finish, lubrication, design considerations, and, in some cases, overload protection mechanisms. These features ensure efficient torque transmission and enable spline shafts to withstand the demands of various mechanical systems.

spline shaft

Can spline shafts be used in automotive applications, and if so, how?

Yes, spline shafts are extensively used in automotive applications due to their ability to transmit torque and provide reliable power transmission. Here’s how spline shafts are used in automotive applications:

Spline shafts play a crucial role in various automotive systems and components, including:

  • Drivetrain: Spline shafts are an integral part of the drivetrain system in vehicles. They transmit torque from the engine to the wheels, allowing the vehicle to move. Spline shafts are present in components such as the transmission, differential, and axle shafts. In manual transmissions, the spline shaft connects the transmission input shaft to the clutch disc, enabling power transfer from the engine. In automatic transmissions, spline shafts are used in the torque converter and the output shaft.
  • Steering System: Spline shafts are employed in the steering system to transmit torque from the steering wheel to the steering rack or gearbox. They provide a direct connection between the driver’s input and the movement of the wheels, allowing for steering control.
  • Power Take-Off (PTO) Systems: Some vehicles, particularly commercial trucks and agricultural machinery, utilize PTO systems. Spline shafts are used in PTOs to transfer power from the vehicle’s engine to auxiliary equipment, such as hydraulic pumps, generators, or agricultural implements.
  • Transfer Cases: In four-wheel-drive (4WD) or all-wheel-drive (AWD) vehicles, transfer cases are used to distribute power to the front and rear axles. Spline shafts are utilized in the transfer case to transfer torque between the transmission and the front and rear drive shafts.
  • Propeller Shafts: Spline shafts are present in propeller shafts, which transmit torque from the transmission or transfer case to the rear axle in rear-wheel-drive vehicles. They accommodate the relative movement between the transmission and the axle due to suspension travel.

In automotive applications, spline shafts are designed to withstand high torque loads, provide precise torque transmission, and accommodate misalignments and fluctuations in operating conditions. They are typically made from high-strength steel or alloy materials to ensure durability and resistance to wear. Proper lubrication is essential to minimize friction and ensure smooth operation.

The use of spline shafts in automotive applications allows for efficient power transmission, precise control, and reliable performance, contributing to the overall functionality and drivability of vehicles.

spline shaft

In which industries are spline shafts typically used?

Spline shafts find applications in a wide range of industries where torque transmission, relative movement, and load distribution are critical. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Automotive Industry:

The automotive industry extensively uses spline shafts in various components and systems. They are found in transmissions, drivelines, steering systems, differentials, and axle assemblies. Spline shafts enable the transmission of torque, accommodate relative movement, and ensure efficient power transfer in vehicles.

2. Aerospace and Defense Industry:

Spline shafts are essential in the aerospace and defense industry. They are used in aircraft landing gear systems, actuation mechanisms, missile guidance systems, engine components, and rotor assemblies. The aerospace and defense sector relies on spline shafts for precise torque transfer, relative movement accommodation, and critical control mechanisms.

3. Industrial Machinery and Equipment:

Spline shafts are widely employed in industrial machinery and equipment. They are used in gearboxes, machine tools, pumps, compressors, conveyors, printing machinery, and packaging equipment. Spline shafts enable torque transmission, accommodate misalignments and vibrations, and ensure accurate movement and synchronization of machine components.

4. Agriculture and Farming:

The agriculture and farming industry extensively uses spline shafts in equipment such as tractors, harvesters, and agricultural implements. Spline shafts are found in power take-off (PTO) units, transmission systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and steering systems. They enable torque transfer, accommodate relative movement, and provide flexibility in agricultural machinery.

5. Construction and Mining:

In the construction and mining industries, spline shafts are used in equipment such as excavators, loaders, bulldozers, and drilling rigs. They are found in hydraulic systems, power transmission systems, and articulated mechanisms. Spline shafts facilitate torque transmission, accommodate misalignments, and enable efficient power transfer in heavy-duty machinery.

6. Marine and Offshore:

Spline shafts have applications in the marine and offshore industry. They are used in propulsion systems, thrusters, rudders, winches, and marine pumps. Spline shafts enable torque transmission in marine vessels and offshore equipment, accommodating axial and radial movement, and ensuring reliable power transfer.

7. Energy and Power Generation:

Spline shafts are utilized in the energy and power generation sector. They are found in turbines, generators, compressors, and other rotating equipment. Spline shafts enable torque transmission and accommodate relative movement in power generation systems, ensuring efficient and reliable operation.

8. Rail and Transportation:

Spline shafts are employed in the rail and transportation industry. They are found in locomotives, railcar systems, and suspension mechanisms. Spline shafts enable torque transfer, accommodate movement and vibrations, and ensure precise control in rail and transportation applications.

These are just a few examples of the industries where spline shafts are typically used. Their versatility, torque transmission capabilities, and ability to accommodate relative movement make them vital components in various sectors that rely on efficient power transfer, flexibility, and precise control.

China Good quality Custom Carbon Steel Big Gear Shaft Large Spline Shaft  China Good quality Custom Carbon Steel Big Gear Shaft Large Spline Shaft
editor by CX 2024-05-10